Presbyterian Church


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Characters Elizabeth Helme
The title-page bears an epigraph from James Thomson , about the moral struggle of honour and aspiration against ease and luxury. It opens on an old-fashioned couple in their great Yorkshire house, Mr and Mrs...
Characters Sophie Veitch
This well-characterized and engaging novel puts forward the idea that passion is necessary although dangerous if uncontrolled: an idea anticipating Veitch's later sensation novel The Dean's Daughter. The story is set at a town...
Characters Sophie Veitch
Though the title spotlights her alone, the heroine is set firmly in her social milieu: a coastal part of Scotland with a luxury estate on an offshore island called Moyle, all unknown territory to...
Cultural formation Annie S. Swan
Her father had been impressed as a young man by the Morrisonian revival, a revolt against rigorous Calvinism. He was violently opposed to belief in predestination, and helped build a little Evangelical Union Church which...
Cultural formation Elizabeth Helme
She was apparently born into the English lower middle class. Her novels reflect an interest in Scotland, a solid British patriotism, and a dislike of Presbyterianism compared with the Anglican church.
Cultural formation Mary Somerville
MS was born to parents who belonged to the Scottish gentry by birth and position (and were presumably white) but had little fortune; her father, Vice Admiral Sir William George Fairfax , was held his...
Cultural formation Ann Bridge
AB sprang from two different cultures. Her mother was a white Southern American from before the Civil War and in religion an Episcopalian (in English terms an Anglican), while her father was English and was...
Cultural formation Elizabeth Delaval
ED possessed an impressive royalist pedigree, Scottish on her father's side, English on her mother's She was born into the nobility, during the final stages of the English Civil War which temporarily deprived this group...
Cultural formation Sarah Tytler
The Keddies raised their children in the Calvinistic, Presbyterian Church of Scotland. After 1843, when the Free Kirk , or Free Church of Scotland, seceded (on the issue of the right of congregations to choose...
Cultural formation Elizabeth Melvill
EM was an upper-class Scotswoman who was born into the Church of Scotland and remained a fervent and radical member of it. She is presumed to have undergone a conversion experience within this church, and...
Cultural formation Frances Browne
Her family was Presbyterian and apparently of Irish ancestry. She was raised in a lower middle-class family in a rural Irish town, and was presumably white. Accounts of her great-grandfather's squandered estates give Browne's family...
Cultural formation Charlotte Dempster
CD grew up in the Church of Scotland , but converted to Roman Catholicism in 1891 after a decade living in France.
Dempster, Charlotte. The Manners of My Time. Knox, AliceEditor , Grant Richards, 1920.
Cultural formation Elizabeth Heyrick
She was born a Dissenter and until her marriage attended the Presbyterian church in East Bond Street, Leicester. John Wesley visited the Coltman household during her youth. Later, during her widowhood, she became a Quaker .
Beale, Catherine Hutton, editor. Catherine Hutton and Her Friends. Cornish Brothers, 1895.
Aucott, Shirley. Women of Courage, Vision and Talent: lives in Leicester 1780 to 1925. Shirley Aucott, 2008.
Cultural formation Maria De Fleury
MDF was a fervent Protestant, who had dealings with the sect of Baptists , as well as attending an Independent or Presbyterian congregation headed by John Towers (who wrote one of the prefaces to her...
Cultural formation Elizabeth Melvill
While the Scottish parliament, meeting at Edinburgh in summer 1621, sought to wrench control of the Scottish Church from its radical wing, anti-episcopal Presbyterian ministers gathered at nearby Sheens to await the result. There EM


John Calvin , who became the single greatest influence on the Reform movement, published The Institutes of the Christian Religion.
September 1607
Hugh O'Neill 's rebellion in Ireland came to a final end with the Flight of the Earls: this was the last stand of Gaelic Ireland against the colonising English.
By May 1619
The Calvinist Synod of Dort in Holland confirmed the doctrine of total human depravity, setting it at the head of their articles of doctrine.
October 1636
The Scottish Privy Council was ordered to issue a proclamation compelling the Scottish Kirk to use the new (Anglican ) Scottish Prayer Book designed by Laud .
April 1637
Alexander Henderson of Leuchars, a godly leader of the Scottish Kirk , held a secret meeting with a group of Edinburgh matrons to enlist their aid in resistance against the imposition of the new (...
23 July 1637
The AnglicanBook of Common Prayer was used for the first time, according to Charles I 's order, at St Giles's Church in Edinburgh, the centre of the Scottish (Presbyterian ) Church.
28 February 1638
At Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh, Scotsmen opposed to Charles I 's imposition of the AnglicanBook of Common Prayer on the Scottish (Presbyterian ) Church signed a National Covenant against such innovations: in...
December 1638
The Glasgow Assembly , a newly formed, radical body representing the Scottish Kirk (some weeks after a first meeting in the cathedral at Glasgow) formally condemned Charles I 's Scottish Prayer Book.
27 March-June 1639
Charles I made war on the ScottishCovenanters , or adherents of Presbyterianism .
20 August 1640
The Scots (provoked by Charles I 's imposition of the AnglicanBook of Common Prayer on the Scottish Presbyterian Church in 1637) invaded England, and for the second time in eighteen months their monarch marched against them.
September 1643
Parliament entered into the Solemn League and Covenant with the Scots, which committed them to accepting the reformed religion (i.e. Presbyterianism ) in Scotland and establishing it in England.
6 August 1647
Cromwell 's New Model Army marched on London to quell an attempted Presbyterian counter-revolution.
27 January 1649
Ann or Anne Fairfax (wife of the former parliamentary commander Sir Thomas Fairfax ) made her second verbal intervention in the trial of Charles I .
22 May 1661
The common hangman at London publicly burned the Covenant with the Scots, as a symbol of stamping out Presbyterianism in England.
7 December 1666
More than a hundred Covenanters were found guilty of rebellion and sentenced to be hanged with particular brutality from the Mercat Cross in Edinburgh.