Catharine Macaulay

Standard Name: Macaulay, Catharine
Birth Name: Catharine Sawbridge
Married Name: Catharine Macaulay
Married Name: Catharine Graham
Self-constructed Name: Catharine Macaulay Graham
Used Form: Mrs Macauly
CM is best known as a radical historian (the only historian of England from a republican point of view for almost two centuries after she wrote). The eight volumes of her History of England took her another twenty years of work from the publication of the first volume in 1763, and ran to 3,483 quarto pages.
Hill, Bridget. The Republican Virago: The Life and Times of Catharine Macaulay, Historian. Clarendon Press.
She also wrote memorable pamphlets on political and other topics, and treatises on theology and gender politics.


Connections Sort descending Author name Excerpt
Family and Intimate relationships Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire
Five years into her marriage and desperate to bring a pregnancy to term, she consulted the notorious alternative practitioner James Graham (now brother-in-law of Catharine Macaulay ). She also adopted and took to her heart...
Family and Intimate relationships Elizabeth Gilding
Like her, he was a contributor to magazines: a juvenile work by him appeared in the Lady's Magazine in 1775, and he later contributed to the European and other magazines under the name of Fidelio...
Family and Intimate relationships Mary Harcourt
MH 's brother-in-law, Simon Harcourt, later the second earl , was married to Elizabeth , née Vernon, 1746-1826, who was a life-writer (like Mary), a social poet, and a collector of manuscript verse. This couple...
Friends, Associates Elizabeth Carter
EC associated on terms of warmth and equality with men of letters or culture such as Samuel Johnson , Samuel Richardson , Thomas Birch , Moses Browne , Richard Savage , William and John Duncombe
Friends, Associates Sarah Scott
As a girl SS had known the future Catharine Macaulay ; she retained a great respect for Macaulay's writings although she disagreed with her politics.
Schellenberg, Betty. “Sarah Robinson Scott and the Republic of Letters”. Women in the Republic of Letters Conference, Saskatoon, SK.
Friends, Associates Mercy Otis Warren
MOW began corresponding with Catharine Macaulay during the 1760s, after Macaulay sent a copy of the first volume of her History of England to James Otis . Their intellectual friendship developed further on Macaulay's visit...
Friends, Associates Catherine Hutton
CH 's friends included novelists Sarah Harriet Burney and Robert Bage , publisher Sir Richard Phillips , Elizabeth Arnold (whom she calls sister of Catharine Macaulay , but who was actually the sister of Macaulay's...
Friends, Associates Mary Wollstonecraft
Newington Green was a fortunate place for MW to have settled: it was a centre of intellectual Dissent. There she met the radical minister Richard Price , the poet Samuel Rogers , and the teacher...
Intertextuality and Influence Stéphanie-Félicité de Genlis
Mary Wollstonecraft , though she saw many virtues in this book, was not happy that Adelaide was educated to be obedient, not independent-minded: that with all her accomplishments she was ready to marry any body...
Intertextuality and Influence Lucy Aikin
Her model for this genre was Elizabeth Hamilton , but the influence of Catharine Macaulay is discerned by Karen O'Brien in Aikin's Whig positioning and in her self-confidently judgemental tone.
O’Brien, Karen. Women and Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge University Press.
This work was reissued...
Intertextuality and Influence Mary Hays
Among the book's contents are poems and fiction (including dream visions and an Oriental tale. Titles like Cleora, or the Misery Attending Unsuitable Connections and Josepha, or pernicious Effects of early Indulgence foreground Hays's didactic...
Intertextuality and Influence Anna Maria Bennett
Readers first encounter the young male protagonist, Henry Dellmore, bearing the nickname of Mumps, and suffering as a pupil at a Dickensian school, under the proprietor Mr Puffardo. Once taken up by benefactors, he...
Literary responses Mary Whateley Darwall
John Langhorne praised the volume in the Monthly Review with particular attention to the abilities of women for the tender and the natural; the reviewer for the Critical Review approved it because of the author's...
Literary responses Lady Mary Walker
The Monthly claims to find in the answering pamphlet sufficient internal evidence to identify the author, and that she stands ready to take up the anti-Burke stance recently maintained by Catharine Macaulay . It identifies...
Literary responses Mary Hays
One of Jane Austen 's sisters-in-law owned a copy. Some reviewers objected both to content and arrangement. The European Review was not untypical in that although it expressed some admiration it also called for a...


12 June 1638: By the thinnest margin of 7-5, the Court...

National or international item

12 June 1638

By the thinnest margin of 7-5, the Court of the Exchequer ruled in favour of King Charles I and against John Hampden on the latter's defiant refusal to pay ship-money, establishing one of the most...

1 February 1642: London women petitioned the House of Commons...

National or international item

1 February 1642

London women petitioned the House of Commons for peace; a second petition followed three days later.

23 April 1649: London women brought the Petition of divers...

Building item

23 April 1649

London women brought the Petition of divers wel-affected women before the House of Commons demanding the release of John Lilburne and other Levellers .

1 May 1649: Following the imprisonment of John Lilburne...

National or international item

1 May 1649

Following the imprisonment of John Lilburne and others, the Levellers issued An Agreement of the Free People of England, which Catharine Macaulay later judged their most important text.

21 May 1662: Charles II married Catherine of Braganza...

National or international item

21 May 1662

Charles II married Catherine of Braganza (daughter of the king of Portugal) in two ceremonies: one secret and Catholic, one Anglican.

15 January 1759: The first reading room of the British Museum...

National or international item

15 January 1759

The first reading room of the British Museum was opened.

1766: The Annual Register printed a Humorous Proposal...

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The Annual Register printed a Humorous Proposal for a Female Administration by Jacobina Henriques, proposing that the tired government and constitution would be revivified by women in public office.

February 1768: James Boswell published his composite work...

Writing climate item

February 1768

James Boswell published his composite work on the Corsican liberation struggle: An Account of Corsica; the Journal of a Tour to that Island; and Memoirs of Pascal Paoli.

4 February-13 April 1769: Disputes occurred over John Wilkes's right...

National or international item

4 February-13 April 1769

Disputes occurred over John Wilkes 's right to take his seat in the House of Commons , from which he had been expelled for the first time in 1764.

1777: Richard Samuel engraved his Nine Living Muses...

Women writers item


Richard Samuel engraved his Nine Living Muses of Great Britain (or Portraits in the Character of the Muses in the Temple of Apollo) for Johnson's Ladies New and Polite Pocket Memorandum for 1778...

2 July 1781: At the Haymarket Theatre the final performance...

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2 July 1781

At the Haymarket Theatre the final performance was given of The Genius of Nonsense, a play which mocked James Graham , health-and-sex pundit, as the Emperor of Quacks.

1783: James Graham announced in the Public Advertiser...

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James Graham announced in the Public Advertiser his intention of prosecuting the Rambler's Magazine (which was known for pornography) for printing his Lecture on Generation (i.e. procreation).

1785: Dialogues Concerning the Ladies, a celebration...

Women writers item


Dialogues Concerning the Ladies, a celebration of famous women, was anonymously published; it borrows from Ballard 's Memoirs of Eminent Ladies.

Late 1790: William Holland published a print of Burke...

National or international item

Late 1790

William Holland published a print of Burke running the gauntlet of enemies with whips: women as well as men.

1804: The publisher George, George, and John Robinson,...

Writing climate item


The publisher George, George, and John Robinson , whose list of women writers had been distinguished, went bankrupt.


Macaulay, Catharine. A Modest Plea for the Property of Copy Right. R. Cruttwell, 1774.
Macaulay, Catharine. A Treatise on the Immutability of Moral Truth. A. Hamilton, Jr., 1783.
Macaulay, Catharine. An Address to the People of England, Scotland, and Ireland, on the present Important Crisis of Affairs. R. Cruttwell, 1775.
Macaulay, Catharine. Histoire d’Angleterre. Translator Mirabeau, Honoré-Gabriel, Chez Gattey, 1792.
Macaulay, Catharine. Letters on Education. Dilly, 1790.
Macaulay, Catharine. Loose Remarks on Certain Positions. T. Davies, T. Cadell, and others, 1767.
Macaulay, Catharine. Observations on a Pamphlet. Edward and Charles Dilly, 1770.
Macaulay, Catharine. Observations on the Reflections of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, on the Revolution in France. C. Dilly, 1790.
Macaulay, Catharine. The History of England. J. Nourse and others, 1783.
Macaulay, Catharine. The History of England from the Revolution to the Present Time. R. Cruttwell, 1778.