wrote upwards of fourteen Victorian novels as well as contributing to many periodicals. Much of her fiction is peopled by eccentric cosmopolitan Londoners, Italian and French visitors, and motherless, bright, and educated young women trying to carve out niches for themselves within the boundaries of the middle and upper-middle classes, with varying degrees of success. Her periodical submissions are predominantly travel writings which showcase her sustained interest in the art, culture, and history of Italy. She also translated plays and travel books from Italian and German, with her husband,
, serving as editor.