This optional attribute is found in BIOGRAPHY > EDUCATION > SCHOOL. It records the significant differences between types of institutions. We are interested in the effect of institutional structures on women's lives and hope to capture, for example, how institutional differences between trade schools and boarding schools influenced women. Because of the complicated range of (especially British) educational institutions, this attribute has ten attribute values: boarding, grammar, private, state, dameSchool, daySchool, comprehensive, secondaryModern, tradeSchool, prep:
Boarding: a boarding school is a school at which the students sleep. Common in the fee-paying system, less common in the state or free system, though in some areas like the Highlands and Islands of Scotland boarding schools are (or maybe were) standard at secondary level because of the far-flung nature of terrain. Often weekly boarding (home for weekends) rather than for whole term.
Grammar: Grammar schools date back to the middle ages; grammar in title means education in Latin (occasionally Greek as well). They were for boys only, though some took a few girls almost without noticing. Grammar schools for girls began in the nineteenth century; academic education was thought of as a needing single-sex environment. Entrance from 1944 was by an exam called the "Eleven Plus" from age at which children sat it. Grammar schools creamed off the top 10% or so of the population. They gradually died out after Comprehensive Schools came in during the 1950s and 1960s. Currently making a come-back.
Private: The broad category private (or fee-paying) includes the subcategory of “public schools” which are a particular group of high-status, now private schools with a particular history.
State: Schools provided for out of the taxes for free education are called state schools.
DameSchool: A totally informal school run by a woman on her own initiative, usually at a primary level: teaching elementary alphabet, etc.
Day school: a day school applies in contexts where boarding schools are common. Attending a day school is different from being a day pupil at a boarding school.
Comprehensive: Brave new idea of putting whole ability range in same (therefore typically larger) school. In many communities the grammar school and the “secondary modern” were each converted into a comprehensive and the teachers had to spend a decade convincing the local residents that both were equally good.
Prep: a private school (historically single-sex male, and boarding) not secondary as in US terminology but primary (typically to the age of 13).
SecondaryModern: These replaced trade or vocational schools when another Education Act went through, as the schools for those who failed the 11+ exam. A well-meant system but children felt rejected. Harrowing tales of those who actually made it to university in the end despite having failed the 11+ and attended a Secondary Modern.
TradeSchool: A secondary or post secondary institution where students learn a trade.