The Tag Glossary: P

Orlando's content is structured by the unique XML tagset described in the Introduction and visualized in the Tag Diagrams. To assist in understanding Search result facets and Tag Search, this Glossary provides definitions for tags and attributes (descriptors associated with tags). Some attributes have set values. These are often explained within definitions of attributes. Other attribute values, such as genre names, are defined within the ontologies of the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory, which hosts Orlando’s production environment. Searches on this page retrieve tags, attributes, and definitions, but not necessarily attribute values.



Machine name

The part attribute specifies whether or not its parent element is fragmented in some way, typically by some other overlapping structure: for example a speech which is divided between two or more verse stanzas, a paragraph which is split across a page division, a verse line which is divided between two speakers

Penalties (for writing)

Machine name

This element belongs conceptually to WRITING > RECEPTION. It encloses at least a sentence, or a statement long enough for clarity, about negative or harmful consequences of writing—family disapproval, legal action, imprisonment, banning of text (see attribute CENSORSHIP), etc. It has one optional attribute, CENSORSHIP, with a value of CensorshipYes.


Machine name

This element is used in WRITING > PRODUCTION. It is often in a CHRONPROSE. This element should contain all the available specifics of the performance of a woman writer's work, whether of a stage play, monologue, a radio drama, or a television film script. Also covers significant public readings, etc. Often used for the opening of such a work in preference to a publication event. Name the performed text if you can, but a significant work will also be named in a corresponding TEXTSCOPE if this is its debut. This tag has no mandatory or optional sub-elements or attributes.

Periodical publication

Machine name

This element belongs conceptually to WRITING > PRODUCTION. It provides a home for commentary about a writer's (or text's) publication history in periodicals. It captures a statement, often a CHRONSTRUCT. For serialized novels an entry-writer must choose whether to supply a CHRONSTRUCT for volume publication or for the first part of a serialization (or very occasionally both). It has no mandatory attributes or sub-elements.

Person Name

Machine name

The only big-bucket tag using Datastructs instead of prose (which it does not allow), and a reminder that most writers had, or have, more than one name in use. PERSONNAME is the first DIV1 content element placed within a BIOGRAPHY section, one of the 16 major elements defined as integral to mapping a woman's life. While the NAME element indexes all standard names, PersonName allows the researcher to provide the details and all the variants of one person's name(s). It has the following sub-elements to capture specific names: BIRTHNAME, GIVEN, SURNAME, INDEXED, MARRIED, NICKNAME, PSEUDONYM, RELIGIOUSNAME, ROYAL, SELFTITLED, STYLED, TITLED.

Philanthropy or volunteer

Machine name

This optional attribute on SIGNIFICANTACTIVITY (within OCCUPATION or FAMILY=MEMBER, in the Biography section of profiles) is used to indicate whether or not this involved philanthropic or volunteer work, a crucial role for women formerly and now. It has an attribute value of philanthropyVolunteerYes, which indicates work motivated by a wish to do good rather than by mere interest.


Machine name

PLACE is a core tag globally available, the largest bucket holding together the sub-elements defining location. It must enclose every set or nest of more specific tags signifying place: GEOG, REGION, SETTLEMENT, etc., where it structures information about geographical location. All content information --- i.e. the names of places -- is placed inside its sub-elements. Place does allow free prose which can be used for untagged descriptors like 'near' or 'the tiny village of' and to enter punctuation.

Locating events and people is a priority of our Project. By indicating where events occurred, we will be able to bring together people and places, and to uncover geographical connections between writers as yet undiscovered.

There are two main goals for tagging place: mapping and indexing. We hope automatically to provide our users with maps of literary history. For example, by using the places tagged with biography documents, we might generate a map for each woman writer's life which places her in specific places at specific dates. We also hope to allow users to see a map of events for a particular year which would bring together geographical information from all Project schemas. In order to automate mapping, it is crucial that we provide place information in a structured and recognizable way. In addition to mapping, we want to provide a user with an index of places, for instance of all women writers who lived in Bloomsbury or all events which took place in Bath.

While we prioritize the tagging of place, not all places require tagging. We hope to enhance our geographical information by context-specific tagging. For example, by tagging only places where events occurred in the material of a CHRONSTRUCT rather than all places mentioned in the prose, we will be able to map that event to the place tagged. 

PLACE is available within most elements which contain prose. It has the following content sub-elements which divide PLACE into smaller units: PLACENAME, ADDRESS, SETTLEMENT, REGION, and GEOG, with AREA hopefully to follow.

Place of publication

Machine name

This field in the Bibliography Database records the place of publication of a text. Encloses a settlement and sometimes region name.


Machine name

The TPLOT element belongs conceptually in WRITING > TEXTUALFEATURES. It addresses overview summaries of narrative actions. Encloses a statement, either brief (the complicated plot involves several switched partners before the multiple marriage ending) or a whole paragraph (or more) tracing the way the story unfolds. It has no mandatory or optional sub-elements or attributes.

Political affiliation

Machine name
Current alternative term
Woman-Gender Issue

This sub-element within POLITICS and CULTURALFORMATION (in the BIOGRAPHY section of entries) tracks the beliefs, affiliations, connections, activities, and associations which designate a person's political life. Encloses the names of political parties, but also of broader movements: imperialist or pacifist or vegetarian. These affiliations can be both formal connections to a party or organization and informal political positions held by the writer. We hope to point our readers towards women writers associated with different political positions and help researchers make links between political beliefs and writing. For this reason, we are defining POLITICALAFFILIATIONs broadly and include things like being against capital punishment or a strong supporter of the Empire (imperialist), or a campaigner against vivisection or for animal rights, in addition to more straightforward affiliations such as Marxist or Conservative.

POLITICALAFFILIATION has optional attributes of ACTIVISM, INVOLVEMENT, MEMBERSHIP (for three alternative levels of commitment: only one is used for a single element), and WOMAN-GENDERISSUE, to specify the level and type of affiliation described. Other optional attributes are REG (which captures a standard term if the prose does not: "strong supporter of the Empire" REG=”imperialist), CURRENTALTERNATIVETERM (used when a historical term has been replaced with a new one: Whig Reg=Liberal), and Id.


Machine name

POLITICS is one of the 16 major content DIV1 elements in BIOGRAPHY sections of entries defined as integral to mapping a woman's life.It has one content sub-element, POLITICALAFFILIATION, that captures specific political positions taken up. We have interpreted this big-bucket tag broadly—holding that it covers not only established political parties, but splinter groups, pressure groups, campaigners, resisters, ideology, and public goals. Women's involvement in political activities and organizations is a central critical concern in our literary history; we are interested in both how political awareness influenced women's writing and how writing influenced feminist political activity. 


Machine name

This optional element is attached to BIOGRAPHY > BIRTH > BIRTHPOSITION. It allows us to systematize information concerning women writers through its values of Eldest, Youngest and Only. 

Press run

Machine name

This element belongs in WRITING > PRODUCTION. It records the number of copies in an issue or edition of a printed text. This can be expressed in numeric form or in prose, such as "a short run." Encloses either a number or a statement. Not often mentioned, but useful historical information when known. It has are no mandatory sub-elements or attributes.

Price (of text)

Machine name

This element belongs to WRITING > PRODUCTION. It defines the selling price of a book, pamphlet, or other piece of writing. Encloses a number or sometimes a statement establishing meaning and context. May be used of original editions, reprints, or auction prices of unique copies or rare historical items. It has no mandatory sub-elements or attributes.

Production (of writing)

Machine name

One of only three big-bucket tags in WRITING section of entries (in combination with TEXTUALFEATURES and RECEPTION). It encloses information about the process of a text's production whether they be material or cultural. All other influences on the writer's life will be covered by the BIOGRAPHY section. PRODUCTION addresses the facts and factors of text creation and distribution, and the description of the text as object (bibliographic description). This category can address a single text, or a group of texts.

PRODUCTION encloses as many CHRONSTRUCTs and SHORTPROSEs as are needed to relate how a text or group of texts came into being: inspiration, conditions of work, copying or publication, obstacles along the way, plus later embodiments in revised editions, adaptations, etc. Subtags which belong logically or conceptually within Production are flagged with an initial P in their name, like PANTHOLOGIZATION, PCONTRACT, but any tag named with an initial T or R (for TEXTUALFEATURES or RECEPTION) is also allowable within PRODUCTION, and vice versa (tags with initial P allowed in TEXTUALFEATURES and RECEPTION). We chose this flexibility because of the interrelatedness of the topics: production elements like decorative features may relate closely to textual features like imagery, which in turn have elicited particular responses from critics.


Machine name

This optional attribute on TCHARACTERTYPEROLE is conceptually linked with WRITING > TEXTUALFEATURES. It gives more information about the status of a character within a fictional story. It has two values, male and female. 


Machine name
Name Signifier
Wrote or Published as

This term is found in BIOGRAPHY > PERSONNAME. It must go inside a DATAITEM. PSEUDONYM includes all names -- both proper names and descriptive phrases (for example, A Lover of Her Sex is a pseudonym for Mary Astell) -- if used in publishing or circulating work. This tag has optional attributes of NAMESIGNIFIER, REG, and WROTEORPUBLISHEDAS.

Publication Mode

Machine name
Privately printed
Limited edition

This optional attribute on the element PMODEOFPUBLICATION, belonging to WRITING > PRODUCTION. Identifies how a text was published. Its allowable values are self-publication, privatelyPrinted, limitedEdition, subscription, and pirated.