The Tag Glossary: E

Orlando's content is structured by the unique XML tagset described in the Introduction and visualized in the Tag Diagrams. To assist in understanding Search result facets and Tag Search, this Glossary provides definitions for tags and attributes (descriptors associated with tags). Some attributes have set values. These are often explained within definitions of attributes. Other attribute values, such as genre names, are defined within the ontologies of the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory, which hosts Orlando’s production environment. Searches on this page retrieve tags, attributes, and definitions, but not necessarily attribute values.


Earnings (from writing)

Machine name

PEARNINGS is conceptually related to WRITING > PRODUCTION. It comments both on the value/amount of her literary earnings and her attitude towards them. This means earnings, direct or indirect, from writing, not from a day job (which is tagged as REMUNERATION, in OCCUPATION, in the BIOGRAPHY section). It also sometimes encloses comment on a writer’s feelings or statements about her earnings. It is often used with PCONTRACT or other tags relating to publication process. 


Machine name

This element captures information about the nature of the editions that a text went through. This can also provide a space to talk about bowdlerization, revisions, emendations, the author's preference for certain editions, or which edition is preferable from a scholarly point of view because of completeness.


Machine name

EDUCATION is one of the 16 major, DIV1 elements defined as integral to mapping a woman's life in the BIOGRAPHY section of entries. EDUCATION contains all information about a person's educational experience. Particular emphasis is placed on where and when she went to school (content tagging here will provide important links between different women writers who had the same teacher or went to the same school), gender issues (the conditions affecting women's access to education), and subjects studied (making connections between a subject studied by the writer and topics of her writing). In most instances this element will directly follow the FAMILY element capturing information about the subject’s parents, and education from primary to post-secondary will be included in the same element. But it can be used repeatedly in one entry to reflect chronology or to apply different attribute values - when, for example, the subject attended university later in life. This tag has content sub-elements: AWARD, COMPANION, CONTESTEDBEHAVIOUR, DEGREE, INSTRUCTOR, SCHOOL, SUBJECT, TEXT. It has an optional attribute, MODE, used to register whether the education took place at home, in an institution or self-driven.


Machine name

This sub-element is located in BIOGRAPHY > OCCUPATION. It captures the names of a person's employers. We are interested in tracking of particular kinds of organizations and institutions that supported women's work or attracted women writers more than others. This element generally encloses just a NAME or ORGNAME, though it may enclose a few words (a series of department stores).


Machine name

This attribute is attached to BIOGRAPHY > INTIMATERELATIONSHIPS. It allows us to distinguish intimate relationships that were erotic and/or explicitly sexual from intimate relationships that were not, through its three potential values: eroticYes, eroticNo, and eroticPossibly. EROTIC in this context suggests that sexuality was an issue in the relationship whether or not it was acted upon, in either same-sex and different-sex relations. In not wishing to assume that heterosexual relations between sexual partners are the only standard for intimate relationships, we include both erotic and non-erotic intimate relationships as central to a woman's life and use this attribute to distinguish between the two. This attribute also seeks to redress the historical and ideological silence placed upon women's same-sex relationships; it recognizes that biographical information concerning these and other relationships often is impossible to uncover, and therefore allows for an attribute value of eroticPossibly that registers the possibility of a sexual relationship, when, in the absence of biographical proof, it is impossible to claim such as fact.


Machine name

Ethnicity is a sub-tag within BIOGRAPHY > CULTURALFORMATION. It is sometimes also within RACEANDETHNICITY. ETHNICITY captures information about a person's ethnic position. See RACEANDETHNICITY for a detailed description of the complexities of this element. ETHNICITY encloses the word or phrase that best describes the person's ethnicity. It has optional attributes of FOREBEAR, SELF-DEFINED, and REG, which standardizes an ethnic label.


Machine name
Event type

A chronStruct is an element that holds together and therefore associates a date with the prose that describes an event.

Event type

Machine name

CHRONCOLUMN is a mandatory attribute on the element CHRONSTRUCT (available throughout the textbase), which designates a given event as belonging to a subject-specific “column” - that is, to appear in different faceted searches - in Orlando timelines. It has four values: PoliticalClimate, WomenWriters, WritingClimate, and SocialClimate. The same event can be assigned to more than one CHRONCOLUMN, and each may have a different RELEVANCE value. In searches where CHRONCOLUMN is not specified, the event will appear with the icon of the one assigned first. Interpretation of values SocialClimate and NationalInternational is fluid.

The attribute values carry the following connotations:

PoliticalClimate Events

  • British-centric events with major implications in Europe, colonies, or world-wide;
  • major foreign events which affected Britain either politically or socially (eg., Russian Revolution);
  • establishment of major national and international organizations (e.g. League of Nations, Oxfam, International Labour Organization);
  • change in status of countries' governing structure, especially colonies, former colonies, and close allies (e.g. independence, coups);
  • British monarchs’ accession;
  • British general elections; major British and other military engagements (e.g. in Europe, in India, Boer War, major campaigns of WWI and II)

Social Climate: the items in this column will frequently refer not to discrete events but to larger trends or practices affecting women; this means DATERANGES as well as DATES, often approximate.

The following are types of information appropriate to this column:

  • advances, developments, or regressions in the areas of technology, science, medicine, law
  • education
  • conditions surrounding or affecting domestic conditions: housing, clothes, food and food supply, family well-being
  • women's political office or involvement in political organisations e.g. the dates of a non-writing but historically significant woman's election to office. (Many events will be listed in the PoliticalClimate column as well--e.g. Lady Astor as first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons.)

Writing Climate

  • texts and events associated with male writers
  • texts and events associated with non-British women writers
  • information about copyright, print technology, book trade, etc.

Women Writers

  • texts and events associated with women writers individually or as a class
  • material conditions affecting women's writing


Machine name

An attribute of DATERANGE, available in every kind of document, EXACT indicates varying degrees of certainty in the values given the TO and FROM attributes. One of these may be flagged as exact by the values on this attribute, or both, or neither. It is a way of stretching the CERTAINTY attribute to function in a tag which has two dates to apply it to. It has the values none, to, from, and both. Attribute From (on DATERANGE) flags the Certainty attribute value as applying to the date on which the range begins. Attribute TO (on DATERANGE) flags the CERTAINTY attribute value as applying to the date on which the range ends.

Extent of oeuvre

Machine name

This element, used only within AUTHORSUMMARY and normally containing at least a full sentence, is particularly useful in summing up the careers of minor writers. The AUTHORSUMMARY is attached to WRITING in entries, but displayed on the OVERVIEW screen. There are no allowable sub-elements or attributes for this element.