The Tag Glossary: I

Orlando's content is structured by the unique XML tagset described in the Introduction and visualized in the Tag Diagrams. To assist in understanding Search result facets and Tag Search, this Glossary provides definitions for tags and attributes (descriptors associated with tags). Some attributes have set values. These are often explained within definitions of attributes. Other attribute values, such as genre names, are defined within the ontologies of the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory, which hosts Orlando’s production environment. Searches on this page retrieve tags, attributes, and definitions, but not necessarily attribute values.


Index Source

Machine name

This attribute attached to indexed name, allows us to distinguish between the Library of Congress' and the British Library's indexed names.

Influence Type

Machine name

INFLUENCETYPE is an optional attribute found in WRITING > PRODUCTION > INFLUENCESHER. It is used to indicate how someone or something influenced a woman writer. It has three values: Literary, Intellectual and Familial. If a text or person influenced a woman writer's literary style of techniques, literary is used; if it influenced her ideas or opinions, intellectual is used; if she took inspiration or advice from literary practices or ideas of a parent or other relation, familial is used.

Influences her

Machine name
Influence Type

This term belongs to BIOGRAPHY > PRODUCTION. It records the effects of specific people, texts, events, or places that formed or developed the writer's thinking or practice as an artist. Influences can pertain to her individual texts or her work as a whole. It contains at least a full sentence, and usually at least one tagged NAME or TITLE. It is modified by an attribute, INLFUENCETYPE, which has three values: literary, intellectual, or familial.


Machine name
Dame school
Day school
Secondary modern
Trade school

This optional attribute is found in BIOGRAPHY > EDUCATION > SCHOOL. It records the significant differences between types of institutions. We are interested in the effect of institutional structures on women's lives and hope to capture, for example, how institutional differences between trade schools and boarding schools influenced women. Because of the complicated range of (especially British) educational institutions, this attribute has ten attribute values: boarding, grammar, private, state, dameSchool, daySchool, comprehensive, secondaryModern, tradeSchool, prep:

Boarding: a boarding school is a school at which the students sleep. Common in the fee-paying system, less common in the state or free system, though in some areas like the Highlands and Islands of Scotland boarding schools are (or maybe were) standard at secondary level because of the far-flung nature of terrain. Often weekly boarding (home for weekends) rather than for whole term.

Grammar: Grammar schools date back to the middle ages; grammar in title means education in Latin (occasionally Greek as well). They were for boys only, though some took a few girls almost without noticing. Grammar schools for girls began in the nineteenth century; academic education was thought of as a needing single-sex environment. Entrance from 1944 was by an exam called the "Eleven Plus" from age at which children sat it. Grammar schools creamed off the top 10% or so of the population. They gradually died out after Comprehensive Schools came in during the 1950s and 1960s. Currently making a come-back.

Private: The broad category private (or fee-paying) includes the subcategory of “public schools” which are a particular group of high-status, now private schools with a particular history.

State: Schools provided for out of the taxes for free education are called state schools.

DameSchool: A totally informal school run by a woman on her own initiative, usually at a primary level: teaching elementary alphabet, etc.

Day school: a day school applies in contexts where boarding schools are common. Attending a day school is different from being a day pupil at a boarding school.

Comprehensive: Brave new idea of putting whole ability range in same (therefore typically larger) school. In many communities the grammar school and the “secondary modern” were each converted into a comprehensive and the teachers had to spend a decade convincing the local residents that both were equally good.

Prep: a private school (historically single-sex male, and boarding) not secondary as in US terminology but primary (typically to the age of 13).

SecondaryModern: These replaced trade or vocational schools when another Education Act went through, as the schools for those who failed the 11+ exam. A well-meant system but children felt rejected. Harrowing tales of those who actually made it to university in the end despite having failed the 11+ and attended a Secondary Modern.

TradeSchool: A secondary or post secondary institution where students learn a trade.

Institution Level

Machine name

This optional attribute is found in BIOGRAPHY > EDUCATION > SCHOOL. We are interested in how many women writers went to university, how many had access to primary (elementary) education but not secondary, and the different institutional levels of women's education across historical periods.


Machine name

This content sub-element is available within BIOGRAPHY > EDUCATION. It captures information regarding influential instructors in a person's life. Placing tags around instructors will allow us to discover whether a number of women writers had the same teacher and whether or not a specific teacher supported and encouraged writing in women. We wish to honour teachers who were also writers or who had significant effect on literary development, but not to record every name given in writer’s memoir about her education. The sub-element should be placed around the NAME of the Instructor. If name is unknown, occasionally it encloses a description, e.g. an eminent concert pianist.


Machine name
Gender of Author
Intertextuality Type

TINTERTEXTUALITY belongs conceptually to WRITING > TEXTUALFEATURES. It provides a place to talk about all those textual markers that acknowledge the existence of or imply a relation with other texts. It encloses a statement, nearly always including an author’s name and/or a title. This tag has no mandatory or optional sub-elements but it has two optional attributes: INTERTEXTTYPE and GENDEROFAUTHOR. The attribute INTERTEXTTYPE has values of allusionAcknowledged, allusionUnacknowledged, quotation, misquotation, parody, satire, imitation, adaptation-update, prequel, continuation, answer. The attribute GENDEROFAUTHOR has values of male or female.

Intertextuality Type

Machine name
Allusion acknowledged
Allusion unacknowledged

This optional attribute is used to modify the element of TINTERTEXTUALITY, found in WRITING > TEXTUALFEATURES. It allows greater specificity to indicate how any earlier text has been used in connection with any later text. This attribute, which works in conjunction with a sibling attribute, GenderOfAuthor, has eleven values associated with it.

AllusionAcknowledged applies in situations where the author explicitly acknowledges her debt to a particular text or set of texts. By contrast, if the allusion is clearly evident, but unacknowledged, AllusionUnacknowledged is used.

Quotation applies when the author lifts words or phrases directly from another work (in a prominent position, e.g. a title); Misquotation is used when she gets it wrong or deliberately alters it.

Parody and Satire are used when the author performs a send-up of another text.

Imitation or Adaptation-update suggests a favourable reaction to a text previously written.

Prequel is useful for something like Wide Sargasso Sea which attempts to pre-date or speculate about what came before Jane Eyre.

Continuation (equivalent to sequel, but to someone else’s text) and Answer signify two separate ways of responding imaginatively to a text. They differ from Imitation or Adaptation-update because they do not directly rely on the previous text. Answer generally means opposition.

Intimate relationships

Machine name

INTIMATERELATIONSHIPS is one of the 16 DIV1 major content elements defined as integral to mapping a woman's life in the BIOGRAPHY section of her entry. An intimate relationship is defined, for the purposes of this Project, as a relationship that involves any type of intimacy whether that be emotional, psychological, material, or sexual. This element seeks to counter the traditional assumption that women's only intimate relations happen within the context of marriage or heterosexual relations between sexual partners. It understands lifelong female friendships, defining psychological connections, non-sexual intimacies, or erotically-charged same-sex or different-sex relationships as important to a woman's life. This element captures information concerning both brief sexual affairs and lifelong non-sexual relationships (see attribute EROTIC for distinguishing between the two). This element also seeks to redress the historical and ideological silence around women's same-sex relationships; it recognizes that biographical information concerning these relationships is often impossible to uncover; therefore this element allows us to recognize these relations as significant while not assuming, in the absence of biographical proof, that they were sexual.

This element has sub-elements of LIVESWITH and SEXUALIDENTITY, and an optional attribute, EROTIC.


Machine name

This optional attribute is attached to BIOGRAPHY > POLITICALAFFILIATION.


In conjunction with its sibling attributes, it designates the degree of engagement with the political affiliation or literary school specified. Involvement denotes an intermediate level of activity between ACTIVISM and MEMBERSHIP. The political weight of INVOLVEMENT implies more than simply being a member of the Labour Party but does not entail sustained activism. Examples might include participating (but not in a leadership role) in a labour strike or a WSPU march, holding a position within an organization's executive, writing letters or canvassing for Greenpeace. They might include interest in and response to literary modernism in a writer who still had some reservations about modernism. This attribute has sibling attributes: ACITIVISM, MEMBERSHIP, and WOMAN-GENDERISSUE. It has attribute values, InvolvementYes and InvolvementNo.


Machine name
Female body

The optional attribute ISSUE denotes the specific type of issue described in BIOGRAPHY > HEALTH. Its attribute values will allow us to separate health issues pertaining to PHYSICAL and MENTAL health and to specifically FEMALEBODY health concerns. We are interested in facilitating research into the gendered nature of women's relation to the medical institution, female-dominated illnesses such as breast cancer, and women's oppression by mental health institutions, to name only a few.