European Union


Connections Sort descending Author name Excerpt
Dedications Gillian Clarke
A poem by GC appeared, titled with the date and dedicated to Paulina Tomasik and her family, celebrating the entry of ten new countries into the European Union .
Gillian Clarke.
Material Conditions of Writing Ali Smith
The idea of the series originated at New Year 2016 when someone mentioned a projected referendum on Britain's membership of the European Union . AA asked Simon Prosser of Hamish Hamilton to bring a series...
politics Carol Ann Duffy
CAD is a socialist and a feminist. She nevertheless describes herself as less political than most of her relations (except, perforce, during the Margaret Thatcher years), as if her energy had gone into poetry instead...
politics Elizabeth Jane Howard
Though highly conservative (she later opposed Britain's entry into the European Union )
Leader, Zachary. The Life of Kingsley Amis. Jonathan Cape, 2006.
EJH was not racist. She and Amis hated the regular conversational denigration of Blacks that went on around them, though it...
Reception Dylan Thomas
Though Thomas's reputation has often been assailed (by the Movement poets, by F. R. Leavis , by Welsh nationalists), he now rests in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey; a first edition of Under Milk...
Textual Production Ali Smith
Published a mere six months after the referendum sealing Britain's departure from the European Union , Autumn reflects AS 's increasingly complex explorations of art's temporality. In an interview with Eric Karl Anderson , Smith...
Textual Production Carol Ann Duffy
On the Shore to Shore Nationwide Poetry Tour in summer 2016 with Gillian Clarke , Imtiaz Dharker , and Jackie Kay , plus other poets who joined in their public readings when the tour stopped...
Theme or Topic Treated in Text Luce Irigaray
The first essay in this book begins with a dedication to Renzo Imbeni , Mayor of Bologna and member of the European Parliament (with whom LI had engaged, by invitation, in public debate). She applauds...
Theme or Topic Treated in Text Dervla Murphy
Here as usual DM uses every possible means for understanding—history, geography, close observation of ordinary individuals and the precise conditions of their lives—in her account of this immensely complex and trouble-ridden region. She is able...
Travel Carol Ann Duffy
In summer 2016 CAD took part in the Shore to Shore Nationwide Poetry Tour with Gillian Clarke , Imtiaz Dharker , and Jackie Kay . Starting at Falmouth in Cornwall, they took in Carlisle...


16 April 1948
The Convention for European Economic Co-operation established the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation , first germ of the future European Union .
January 1958
The European Economic Community or European Common Market came into being; it was established by the Six: Belgium, France, the German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
1 January 1973
The United Kingdom left the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and joined the European Economic Community (EEC, later the European Union or EU).
June 1975
Surprisingly, Britain's referendum on joining the European Union resulted in a two-to-one victory for the pro-Europeans.
15 January 1992
The European Union 's Council of Ministers took the decision to recognise the independence from Yugoslavia of Slovenia and Croatia, which those countries had declared on 25 June.
16 September 1992
On what became known as Black Wednesday, the pound sterling was driven out of the Exchange Rate Mechanism which tied it in with other European currencies: that is particularly the deutschmark.
November 1993
The Treaty of the European Union (commonly known as Maastricht, from the place where the treaty was signed on 7 February 1992) finally came into effect, giving judicial legitimacy to the European Union .
1 May 1997
In the general election Labour , under its new leader, the young Scotsman Tony Blair , at last dislodged the Conservative Party from government.
1 May 2004
The European Union was transformed by the joining of ten new countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, and Cyprus.
January 2005
The European Union instituted a market trading in carbon dioxide emissions from large, fixed installations.
1 January 2007
Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union (with the lowest per capita incomes among its membership), bringing it to a total of twenty-seven member states and half a billion citizens.
16 June 2016
Jo Cox , a Labour member of parliament and a young mother, was attacked in the street in Birstall (part of her constituency). She was shot and stabbed repeatedly: a hate crime perpetrated by a...
20 June to 7 July 2016
23 June 2016
By a narrow margin (about 52% to 48%) the British electorate voted for Brexit: that is, to take Britain out of the European Union .
8 June 2017
In a general election called by Britain's second-ever female Prime Minister, Theresa May , her Conservative government was returned with a significantly reduced majority, weakening instead of strengthening its hand for the imminent negotiations over...