was a short-story writer and poet who began her career as a collaborator with her sister
. Her works focus on Jewish culture and spirituality, while querying the early Victorian construction of Jewish women as submissive. She used the popular form of historical romance to mount a critique of anti-semitism (usually safely distanced in place as well as time from contemporary England) and also of gender roles as understood within the contemporary Jewish community. Her characters tend towards the stereotypical and her situations towards the melodramatic, but she writes fast-paced and gripping prose narratives which forcefully deliver her message.