3882 results for politic

Frances Brooke

Mary Singleton, supposed author of this paper, with its trenchant comments on society and politics, is an unmarried woman on the verge of fifty,
McMullen, Lorraine. An Odd Attempt in a Woman: The Literary Life of Frances Brooke. University of British Columbia Press.
14
good-humoured as well as sharply intelligent: a contribution to the contemporary debate about the status of old maids. Her single state is due to the fact that the man she once loved preferred to marry money; but in a number which presents the choice of marriage or single life in the form of a dream vision, Mary Singleton confirms her choice of celibacy for the sake of its freedom and tranquillity, despite all the attractions of marriage. She can claim maternal authority, since she is bringing up a niece, Julia, who enjoys heroine status as an eighteen-year-old orphan whose mother died when she was born. The love-lives of Julia and her friend Rosara are a running topic in the journal. Mary Singleton is serious-minded, reflecting (acknowledged) descent from Johnson 's The Rambler (which had closed only three and a half years before The Old Maid opened) as well as from Steele and Addison . FB also borrows several techniques from Eliza Haywood 's The Female Spectator, including cloaking her discussions of politics with the admission that she is stepping out of her female sphere.
Prescott, Sarah, and Jane Spencer. “Prattling, tattling and knowing everything: public authority and the female editorial persona in the early essay-periodical”. Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol.
23
, No. 1, pp. 43-57.
44-5
She represents men and women together debating the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, about which in general she presents quite a bellicose view. She argues that the Foundling Hospital ought to be supported out of taxes (because inevitable war casualties mean that the population level must be kept up), calls for the death of Admiral Byng if he is found guilty of cowardice, and denies that the earthquake at Lisbon can be an expression of the wrath of God.
Prescott, Sarah, and Jane Spencer. “Prattling, tattling and knowing everything: public authority and the female editorial persona in the early essay-periodical”. Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol.
23
, No. 1, pp. 43-57.
52-3
Hynes, Peter. “’That Gay but Civil Nation’: Frances Brooke and the French”. Canadian Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies (CSECS/SCEDHS) Conference.

Frances Burney

As a frequenter of polite circles who was always short of money, FB spent hours every year (hours which could have been employed in writing) making and keeping her clothes respectable. She wrote in January 1780 that perpetual replenishment . . . actually occupies almost every moment that I spend out of Company.
Rizzo, Betty. “Scissors, Paper, Cloth; A Poor Gentlewoman’s Economy of Composition”. The Burney Journal, Vol.
6
, pp. 56-74.
62
She accepted gifts of used clothes from Hester Thrale but declined subsidy from Henry . Three years later she spent nearly a pound (one hundred times that in early twenty-first-century money) on a hat, needles, and lengths of gauze, crepe, and ribbon, no doubt designed to make old clothes as good as new. While she was at Court she spent four times this amount on this kind of purchase in eight months.
Rizzo, Betty. “Scissors, Paper, Cloth; A Poor Gentlewoman’s Economy of Composition”. The Burney Journal, Vol.
6
, pp. 56-74.
63, 66

Lady Eleanor Butler

Though conservative, strongly monarchist, and anti-revolutionary in their general political bent, the ladies were convinced abolitionists.
Butler, Lady Eleanor et al. The Hamwood Papers of the Ladies of Llangollen and Caroline Hamilton. Editor Bell, Eva Mary, Macmillan.
167-8

Margaret Calderwood

MC 's father, named James Steuart like his father before him, was a distinguished lawyer who, unlike either his father or his son, ran no risks from politically violent times. He was knighted in 1704 and made a baronet the next year.
Calderwood, Margaret. “To the Reader; Introductory Chapter”. Letters and Journals, edited by Alexander Fergusson, David Douglas, p. vii - lviii.
xlii-xliii
Matthew, Henry Colin Gray et al., editors. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/.
under Stewart [Steuart], Sir James, of Goodtrees (1635-1713)

Mary Cary

Her political and religious position was radical. She was a Fifth Monarchist , who looked forward with confidence to the conversion of the Jews and the Second Coming of Christ.

Lady Jane Cavendish

LJC wrote, in the middle years of the seventeenth century, nearly ninety poems (including occasional and political pieces, compliment, religious pieces and a country-house poem) and the better part of two plays: a pastoral or mock-pastoral drama and a comedy. Her sister Lady Elizabeth had some part, but a lesser one, in this output. Her writing was not published, but was apparently well known in manuscript form in her extended and discriminating social circle.

Mary Chandler

MC was never oppositional in her politics. She supported the Hanoverian monarchy and made no mention, either laudatory or critical, of the government of Sir Robert Walpole .
Shuttleton, David. “Mary Chandler’s <span data-tei-ns-tag="tei_title" data-tei-title-lvl=‘m’>Description of Bath</span> (1733): the poetic topographies of an Augustan tradeswoman”. Women’s Writing, Vol.
7
, No. 3, pp. 447-67.
451
No doubt she needed to maintain good relations with customers of both political parties.

Caroline Chisholm

He claimed that she was furthering the degrading despotism of Rome.
Kiddle, Margaret, and Sir Douglas Copland. Caroline Chisholm. Melbourne University Press.
84
Given that Lang was the main proponent of immigration to New South Wales before CC 's arrival in Sydney, it is possible that resentment at the praise garnered by her work was what drove him to resort to sectarian politics. He expressed the wish to live and die amongst his own people,
Kiddle, Margaret, and Sir Douglas Copland. Caroline Chisholm. Melbourne University Press.
83
and put forward an immigration scheme which encouraged solely Protestant immigrants. CC elegantly responded that her idea of a good neighbourhood is not so contracted. I have lived happily amongst pagans and heathens, Mahometans and Hindoos—they never molested me at my devotions, nor did I insult them at theirs; and am I not to enjoy the same privilege in New South Wales?
Kiddle, Margaret, and Sir Douglas Copland. Caroline Chisholm. Melbourne University Press.
83
True to this sentiment, the system of national immigration CC set up in England over the next decade served all religions impartially.
Kiddle, Margaret, and Sir Douglas Copland. Caroline Chisholm. Melbourne University Press.
81-4

Alison Cockburn

AC did not publish, and much of her writing is probably lost. She won a place in literary history with her composition of a popular mournful song or ballad, to an old Scottish tune. Most of her verse is occasional and much of it political. She was a delightful letter-writer, markedly independent in some of her opinions. She also left a short account of her own life and a fable-like biography of Robert Keith .

Clara Codd

Around 1903 when CC joined the Theosophists, she also became a member of the Social Democratic Federation .
Crawford, Elizabeth. The Women’s Suffrage Movement. the Taylor & Francis Group.
134
On her return from Ireland to Bath, where her family had moved, she became involved in politics.
Codd, Clara. So Rich a Life. Caxton Limited.
31, 35, 41
She had already been aware of the disabilities imposed by society on women and was very excited to hear about the suffrage movement.
Codd, Clara. So Rich a Life. Caxton Limited.
45
Given her interest, she was asked by Aeta Lamb to steward a meeting of the Women's Social and Political Union addresssed by Christabel Pankhurst and Annie Kenney .
Codd, Clara. So Rich a Life. Caxton Limited.
45
Crawford, Elizabeth. The Women’s Suffrage Movement. the Taylor & Francis Group.
134

Joseph Conrad

Joseph Conrad 's publishing career spans a little over the first quarter of the twentieth century. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography judges him to be one of the greatest fiction-writers—and probably the greatest political novelist—in English,
a language which he had learned as a non-native speaker. Female characters in his work are a generally peripheral minority.

Catherine Cookson

She made her donations to St Hilda's and Girton despite the fact that she did not call herself a feminist and tended to think of feminism as an attempt to make women more like men. CC frequently stated her opinion of the superior capabilities of women and hated to work for a male boss, though people working for her felt that she was harder on women than on men.
Jones, Kathleen. Catherine Cookson: The Biography. Constable.
302
Her biographer, Kathleen Jones , describes CC as very naive politically.
Jones, Kathleen. Catherine Cookson: The Biography. Constable.
313
CC did read Ellen Wilkinson 's political analysis of the effects of the industrial revolution; however, she seems not to have applied such analysis outside a fairly narrow area, using Wilkinson as background material for Katie Mulholland.
Jones, Kathleen. Catherine Cookson: The Biography. Constable.
259

Jeni Couzyn

Rather than suffer under political restriction, JC chose to uproot her life and her opening career as a poet and move to England. She emigrated from South Africa to London.
Hobsbaum, Philip. “Jeni Couzyn”. World Writers in English, edited by Jay Parini, Scribner, pp. 99-117.
99

Edith Craig

EC 's interest in suffrage is often traced to 1905, when her lifelong partner Christopher St John became actively engaged in the movement; however, Craig was exposed to suffrage politics at a much earlier age through her teacher Elizabeth Malleson .
Cockin, Katharine. Edith Craig (1869-1947): Dramatic Lives. Cassell.
81, 83

Richmal Crompton

William breaks the rules whenever possible. As leader of a gang of four small boys who call themselves the Outlaws, he regularly leads his friends into an escape from humdrum reality through the acting out of fantasies sometimes derived from standard genres of children's literature, and sometimes from information about the adult world that they pick up and misconstrue. He eschews guile and forthrightly confronts the constraints on children in twentieth-century middle-class life, whether at home, in the community (a village within commuting distance of London), or at school. A rival gang, the Laneites, led by a boy named Hubert Lane, are represented as richer in ready cash, more conformist, and given to sneaking or cheating in the rivalry between the two gangs. RC uses humour and wit to expose the character of conservative middle-class life in rural-suburban southern England. William's dialogue pointedly challenges many assumptions and unexamined practices, especially those of pompous adults who lay claim to expert knowledge of children. A child-care expert is taken on in the 1924 story William Makes a Night of It: an expert who has committed the unforgiveable offences of calling William Willie and pressing on him A Child's Encyclopaedia of Knowledge . By the end, the expert is a satisfactorily broken man.
Williams, Kay. Just Richmal. Genesis.
107
RC , a lifelong unquestioning Conservative in politics, keeps William's escapades chiefly within the middle classes, though such groups as gardeners, cooks, and shopkeepers are included with teachers and local civic leaders among adults wielding authority, who are always the Outlaws' natural enemies. Socialists, vegetarians, and adherents of eccentric faiths are also regular targets. The stories focus mainly on an anti-sentimental and anti-clichéed understanding of children. Most often, the historical setting is timeless though implicitly the present; now and then RC would frame a story within specifically contemporary events, as in the 1941 William Does His Bit (that is, for the second world war effort).

Sarah Daniels

SD was still at school, aged sixteen, when a friend persuaded her that they should use free tickets given the school by the local repertory theatre. At first the theatre was boring (its main attraction was under-age drinking in the interval), but the repertoire produced constant novelty,
Aston, Elaine, and Geraldine Harris. Performance Practice and Process: Contemporary (Women) Practitioners. Palgrave Macmillan.
81
and soon SD found she couldn't wait for the next [play].
Drake, Nick et al. “Introduction, editorial materials”. New Connections 99. New Plays for Young People, Faber and Faber, pp. vii - xiii, 602.
602
After leaving school and getting a job, she went to the theatre every week, gradually abandoning the West End for fringe theatre, both feminist and mainstream political.
Daniels, Sarah. Plays: One. Methuen.
ix
Drake, Nick et al. “Introduction, editorial materials”. New Connections 99. New Plays for Young People, Faber and Faber, pp. vii - xiii, 602.
602
She was influenced at this time by a pronouncement of Doris Lessing that one's life needs putting in order.
Daniels, Sarah. Plays: One. Methuen.
ix

Alicia D'Anvers

ADA is a remarkably skilled and hard-hitting verse satirist of the late Restoration period, who writes about international politics and about the misogynist, ingrown, self-satisfied culture of the university to whose press her father was printer.

Emily Davies

Before ED 's birth, her father was offered a Chair of moral and political economy at London University after having published two well-received books. He turned down the offer because the £300 salary was not guaranteed. He died in October 1861.
Davies, Emily. “Chronology, Introduction”. Collected Letters, 1861-1875, edited by Ann E. Murphy and Deirdre Raftery, University of Virginia Press, p. ix - xii, xix-lv.
xxvii
Caine, Barbara. Victorian Feminists. Oxford University Press.
61
Stephen, Barbara. Emily Davies and Girton College. Constable.
20
Forster, Margaret. Significant Sisters. Secker and Warburg.
137

E. M. Delafield

The object of EMD 's satire is often upper-middle-class social mores. Styles of dress play a prominent role: those with artistic pretensions, for instance, are marked by their sandals and horn-rimmed glasses, sack dresses and varnished toenails.
Hill, Rosemary. “Frock Consciousness”. London Review of Books, pp. 22-3.
23
Under the guise of polite conversation and its deliberate avoidance of controversial subjects, EMD touches lightly on a number of political issues. Her position on these subjects can often be clearly surmised: Find myself in vicinity of Our Member, and we talk about the Mace, peeresses in the House of Lords —on which we differ—winter sports, and Alsatian dogs.
EMD is referring to her friend and editor, Lady Rhondda , whose right to sit in the House of Lords was hotly contested in the 1920s. This explains her rapid swerve into safer topics.
Delafield, E. M., and Nicola Beauman. The Diary of a Provincial Lady. Virago.
79
This strategy leads her to pass lightly over subjects on which some modern readers feel that earnestness is almost obligatory: [Mrs White] also suddenly adds that Prohibition and the Jews and Everything are really the thin edge of the wedge, don't I think so? I say Yes, I do, as the quickest way of ending the conversation, and ask if she plays the piano.
Delafield, E. M., and Nicola Beauman. The Diary of a Provincial Lady. Virago.
45-6

Mary Delany

Mary Granville, later MD , was married in the chapel at Longleat House, Wiltshire, to Alexander Pendarves , a boorish sixty-year-old squire whom her uncle Lord Lansdowne wanted as a political ally.
Hayden, Ruth. Mrs. Delany: Her Life and Her Flowers. British Museum.
23-4

Charlotte Dempster

Literary and Political Acquaintances

Charles Dickens

Literary Friends and Politics

E. A. Dillwyn

Politics and Later Years

Isak Dinesen

ID 's father, Wilhelm Dinesen , came from a conservative landowning family, but he had seen the world, partly as a soldier, and his political opinions were liberal or radical, quite unlike those of his forebears. He was also a published writer. In the 1890s he was elected to the Danish parliament. Though Karen was quite young when he died, he remained a charismatic figure in her life.

Anne Docwra

As an elderly woman in the late seventeenth century, AD published at least seven polemical tracts, most of them defending the Quakers. Her work shows her to have been a leader of local public opinion, well schooled in points of law and politics, committed to a search for abstract truth, yet constantly enmeshed in personal animosities.