Before and after she settled in Dominica, expatriate writer Elma Napier published two volumes of autobiography, two novels, one volume of travel stories, and numerous short stories in Dominican and British journals. She also contributed articles to the local press of Calibishie in Dominica, and wrote for the Manchester Guardian. Her work colourfully depicts the Caribbean landscape and addresses the differences in experience and in the use of the land between creoles and expatriates. She deals with issues such as gender and racial inequities, and colonial dependency: some of her work evidences a deep, latent anger at Britain's exploitation of the West Indies and its people.
23 March 1892 Elma Gordon-Cumming (later EN) was born at the family seat at Altyre in Scotland.
1938 EN used the same pseudonym as before, 'Elizabeth Garner', to publish her second novel, A Flying Fish Whispered.