Orlando: Women's Writing

Credits and Acknowledgements


Project Editors: Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, Isobel Grundy
The Orlando Project was originally conceived by Susan Brown, Patricia Clements and Isobel Grundy. Each is a contributor to and has overall responsibility for a historical section of the textbase. Together they worked with the team to develop the Orlando tagsets and delivery system. Each also undertook other research and management responsibilities.
Susan Brown, Professor of English at the University of Guelph and Project Leader of CWRC (the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory), oversaw work on writing from about 1820 to about 1890. In the project's second phase, she took the lead role in integrating the literary and the computing sides in creation of the Orlando delivery system and design of the interface. She was Project Director from 2008 to 2016 and is now Technical Director, continuing to lead the development of Orlando's tools and maintenance of the textbase. She also is responsible for Victorian materials in the textbase and supervises Research Assistants at the University of Guelph.
Patricia Clements, Orlando's Founding Director and Co-Investigator as well as Professor Emeritus at the University of Alberta, oversaw work on writing from about 1880 to the present. She initiated the Orlando project, brought the team together, and served as Project Director from the beginning until 2008. She was Principal Investigator in the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada grant which made the Orlando experiment possible, later team leader in the Canada Foundation for Innovation grant which sustained it.
Isobel Grundy, Professor Emeritus and former Henry Marshall Tory Professor at the University of Alberta, oversaw work on writing from the beginnings to about 1830. She is also the project's Research Director, overseeing materials from across the whole history. She has a major role in mentoring and overseeing the work of Research Assistants at the University of Alberta.
Literary Director: Corrinne Harol
Corrinne Harol is Associate Professor of English and Film Studies at the University of Alberta, specializing in eighteenth-century studies. She joined Orlando in 2016 and leads the project's long term planning on content, including the development of its research in the contemporary period.
Co-Investigators: Terry Butler, Rebecca Cameron, Renée Elio, Susan Hockey, Allen Renear, Stan Ruecker, Jo-Ann Wallace
Terry Butler, Faculty Service Officer at the University of Alberta, began his work on Orlando as the project's chief technical support person, then was a co-investigator in the first phase of the project. He worked with other members of the technical team to develop the project's working tools and resources.
Rebecca Cameron, now Associate Professor of English at DePaul University, began her Orlando work as a Postdoctoral Fellow and became a co-investigator in the later stages of the project.
Renée Elio, Professor of Computing Science at the University of Alberta, joined the Orlando Project when it turned to the challenge of developing a production or delivery system to exploit the extensive tagging of the textbase for dynamic online delivery. She provided expert counsel and leadership in this work during the first prototype design and implementation phases. She was appointed as Associate Vice-President (Research) in 2008.
Susan Hockey, now Emeritus Professor of Library and Information Studies at University College, London, was, when Orlando was conceived, Director of the Princeton-Rutgers Centre for Electronic Texts in the Humanities. Later she was Professor of Humanities Computing at the University of Alberta. A co-investigator in the first phase of the Orlando Project, she provided expert advice on infrastructure and encouraged the Orlando experiment in the new use of the Standard Generalized Markup Language for markup of interpretive, critical text as an element of composition of the text.
Stan Ruecker, now a Project Co-Investigator, is an Associate Professor at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. He began his Orlando work as a Research Assistant. He has had a significant role in the development of the delivery system and its interface.
Jo-Ann Wallace, former Chair of Women's Studies and Chair of English at the University of Alberta, and Allen Renear, Dean and Professor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, both provided expert counsel to Orlando, Dr Wallace on twentieth-century writing and Dr Renear at an early stage in development of the Orlando delivery system.
Technical Personnel: Technical Personnel: Jeffery Antoniuk, Sharon Balazs, Michael Brundin, Terry Butler, Greg Coulombe, Sue Fisher, Dave Gomboc, Mihaela Ilovan, Ruth Knechtel, Roland Penner, Mariana Paredes-Olea, and Stan Ruecker. Assistance: Ben Chen, Mike Plouffe.
The Orlando Project's technical personnel worked closely and creatively with the literary team to develop the project's data structure, its project management tools, and its delivery system. Working at different times in the project's development, these colleagues addressed different issues and problems, sometimes renewing or replacing the work of their predecessors. Sue Fisher and Terry Butler provided technical support in setting the project up. Terry worked with the literary team on development of the Orlando Document Archive, the project's document management system. Gregory Coulombe added functionality to the Archive.
In the first development phase, while Orlando was building its new application of SGML, Susan Hockey provided expert consultation for Sue Fisher and Terry Butler on development of the project's tagsets. As the first team member to master SGML, Sue worked to integrate the literary and computing work, trained others in encoding practice, and was responsible for managing the encoding system as it began to acquire text. Later, Sharon Balazs became the project's Textbase Manager, with responsibility for all encoding-related issues and for ensuring the integrity of the encoded text.
In the second major phase, after the data structure and the systems managing it were complete and functional, the project turned to development of a production (or delivery) system capable of making the encoded text dynamically functional on the Internet. In this phase, Renée Elio provided critical consultation for Dave Gomboc, who was systems analyst and project programmer for two years, and for Roland Penner, who did extensive work on the early development of the Orlando delivery system and later made himself available for consultation.
Jeffery Antoniuk and Sharon Balazs did the core technical work in the final stretch to completion of the delivery system. He did extensive systems development; she did the high-level management of the encoded textbase. Both collaborated closely with Professors Susan Brown, Isobel Grundy, and Stan Ruecker on interface design. Jeffery Antoniuk works with Cambridge University Press on technical matters relating to publication.
Throughout, Orlando's technical colleagues provided support to team members who were working on documents, and oversaw the use and acquisition of equipment. Ben Chen provided assistance early in the project and Mike Plouffe assisted Jeffery Antoniuk for a few weeks in the last stages of development of the Orlando delivery system. Mariana Paredes-Olea followed Sharon Balazs as Textbase Coordinator, and held responsibility for encoding consistency and authority list management. Some of these responsibilities have been taken on successively by Ruth Knechtel and Mihaela Ilovan.
Senior Research Fellow: Kathryn Holland
In this role, Kathryn Holland leads the collaborative authorship of entries in the modernist period, collaborates with Directors on new and established initiatives, trains and supervises Research Assistants, and manages communication with the project's editorial and advisory boards. She also is an instructor in English and Gender Studies at MacEwan University.
Postdoctoral Fellows: Katherine Binhammer, Rebecca Cameron, Kathryn Carter, Kathryn Harvey, Jane Haslett, Aimée Morrison, Janice Schroeder, Jeanne Wood
Throughout Orlando's first phase, Postdoctoral Fellows made varied contributions to the project. While each took a key role in supervising the work of the Research Assistants, assigning and evaluating research and encoding, each also participated in both the literary and the technical work of the project, as a member of the Team Planning Group. Most Orlando PDFs conducted library research and used this to contribute to the historical and critical accounts that make up the textbase; individuals contributed in varying measure to this aspect of the work. The work of the Orlando PDFs changed over time, as the project developed. Katherine Binhammer and Jeanne Wood participated in the development of the Orlando DTDs, and helped to establish procedures, standards, and training programs. They edited Women and Literary History: 'For There She Was' (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2003), essays from the Orlando Conference. Kathryn Harvey helped to establish the draft lists of women to be included in the study and worked on the chronologies; Kathryn Carter continued, after her work as an Orlando PDF, to perform the critical task of vetting each document's use of the full potential of the DTDs; Jane Haslett assumed responsibility for the extensive Orlando bibliographical database. Rebecca Cameron participated in early conversations about the delivery system; Janice Schroeder worked particularly on chronology content; Aimée Morrison brought her experience in humanities computing to the project just when we were working on the delivery system and she assisted with editorial finalising of text.
Research Associates: Rebecca Blasco and Kathryn Holland did substantial work (research, drafting, encoding, checking) on twentieth-century writing. Anna Ford worked on a few twentieth-century documents, as did Sylvia Vance, who also did some document tracking and supervision.
Textflow Management: Kevin Spencer oversaw the movement of documents through the several stages from research, drafting, encoding to finalized versions. Deanna Kruger and Ben Authers also managed the nineteenth-century documents for significant periods of time.
Bibliographical Entries: Jeanne Wood in the early years and later Jane Haslett compiled, verified, and checked all bibliographical listings and references in the Orlando textbase to the point of publication, after which that responsibility was distributed across team members.
Research Assistants: Nadine Adelaar, Barbara Alvarez, Nazareth Arabaghian, Dylan Armstrong, Stacey Aspinall, Ben Authers, Devin Ayotte, Michelle Balen, Nicole Barkwill, Neale Barnholden, Shauna Barry, Rebecca Blain, Rebecca Blasco, Melisa Brittain, Jocelyn Brown, Pippa Brush, Adela Burke, Lara Carleton, Kathryn Carter, Jennifer Chambers, Tina Cheng, Karen Chow, Joanna Cockerline, Aldora Cole, Amy Cote, Cindy Couldwell, Sarah Davidson, Tamara De Dominicis, Leslie Dema, Elena Dergacheva, Jason Dewinetz, Michelle Di Cintio, Erik Drebit, Lisa Dublin, Paul Dyck, Carmen Ellison, Caitlin Elm, Barbara Falk, Colin Faulkner, Gregory Fenton, Alyson Fortowsky, Cody Gautreau, Ernst Gerhardt, Michelle Gregory, George Grinnell, Alexandra Guselle, Keah Hansen, Katherine Hanz, Gordon Harper, Andrea Hasenbank, Jane Haslett, Rob Haslett, Emily Hass, Debra Henderson, Lisa Hennigar, Kathryn Holland, Catherine Higginson, Karine Hopper, Amanda Hooper, Deirdre Hunt, Olga Ivanova, Chelsea Jack, Rob Jackson, Nikhil Jayadevan, Micaela Jimenez, Marilyn Jones, Nicole Keating, Shivaugn King, Devorah Kobluk, Cameron Kroetsch, Deanna Kruger, Kate Lane-Smith, Julien Lapointe, Carolyn Lee, Nadine LeGier, Mary Elizabeth Leighton, Abigel Lemak, Wai-mei Lui, Celiese Lypka, Miriam Mabrouk, Andrew Mactavish, Kristen Mandziuk, Roxanne Maharaj, Ozma Masood, Heather McAsh, Margaret McCutcheon, Mark McCutcheon, Karen McFadyen, Chelsea Miya, Jueun Moon, Aimée Morrison, Breanna Mroczek, Don Myroon, Bhuva Narayanan, Catherine Nelson-McDermott, Kirsten Nicholson, Tram Nguyen, Dempsey Norbet, Ximena Flores Oviedo, Ananda Pellerin, Anthony Purgas, Elizabeth Quinn, Jessica Ratcliffe, Ashley Reid, Cailin Rooke, Esther Rosario, Stan Ruecker, Julie Ruel, Robyn Read, Michaela Rye, Maitreyi Sanjay, Laura Schechter, Jesse Scoble, Caley Skinner, Jana Smith Elford, Thomas Smith, Caley Skinner, Kayla Snyder, Kevin Spencer, Laura Stenberg, Larissa Swayze, Sarah Timleck Lamb, Kristina Trevors, Jill Tzupa, Samantha West.
Research Assistants conducted fundamental library research on assigned topics or writers, researched answers to specific problems, wrote the results of their work into documents, tagging them according to the project's tagsets, checked the work of their colleagues for fidelity to sources or for overall coverage, and implemented revision changes in documents of various kinds. Some Orlando Research Assistants "graduated" into other roles on the project: Rebecca Blasco and Kathryn Holland became Research Associates; Kevin Spencer, Deanna Kruger, Ben Authers became Textflow Managers; Jane Haslett and Kathryn Carter, both part of Orlando from beginning to publication, became Post Doctoral Fellows; after his appointment as Assistant Professor of English at the University of Alberta, former Research Assistant Stan Ruecker became a co-investigator. Many Orlando research assistants "graduated" to other humanities computing projects or to positions in Canada and elsewhere.
External contributors:
These scholars from beyond the core team undertook primary responsibility for the researching, writing, and tagging of the entries listed after their names. The entries went through the same process of collaborative production, editing, and quality control as the rest of the textbase.
Special thanks to those who have volunteered as research assistants: Justine Baskey, Abigail Chapman, Emily Hass, Sydney Kruth, Brynn Lewis, Katie Louise McCullough, Alexandra Ross, Alison Uttley, and Melissa Walker. Erik Drebit and Kirsten Nicholson also contributed to the project in connection with coursework.
Colleagues and friends, and one or two professional researchers like Elizabeth Murray, have shared material and tracked down knotty points of research.
Administration: Janice Beaveridge, Inge Brown, Kris Calhoun, Kendel Ferrier, Cathy Grant, Joanna Langille, and Katherine Woodman dealt with Orlando's accounting and administrative needs at various times. Inge Brown managed organization of the 1997 Orlando Conference on Women and Literary History.
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The Orlando Project is grateful for outstanding support given to its work in women's writing and to its experiment in the application of technology to scholarly text. Over the whole period of the development of the Orlando textbase, the University of Alberta has, through the offices of its Vice-Presidents Research, Dean of Arts, Dean of Graduate Studies, Director of Libraries and Department of English and Film Studies, given unwavering support and encouragement. From the beginning, the Vice-President Research, Dean of Arts, and School of English and Theatre Studies at the University of Guelph have generously supported Orlando's work.
The first phase of the Orlando experiment was made possible by a Major Collaborative Research Initiatives Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada; the second was sustained in part by a grant from the Canada Foundation for Innovation.
The Orlando team is moved by and grateful for personal donations from Don Buchanan and Christopher and Shirley Head.
Orlando has a particular debt of gratitude to Peter Lown, Emeritus Professor of Law at the University of Alberta, for his generous counsel on a range of critical issues, and to Pamela Freeman, as Acting CEO of TEC Edmonton, for her commitment to and expert help with the project of sustaining Orlando financially.
We have very much appreciated the encouraging support of the humanities computing / digital humanities community in Canada and elsewhere, and particularly of Ian Lancashire of the University of Toronto, Ray Siemens of the University of Victoria, and Geoffrey Rockwell of the University of Alberta. We want to thank Julia Flanders, Director of the Women Writers Project at Northeastern University, for collegial generosity and advice on a number of issues relating to the creation and publication of electronic scholarly resources.
The Orlando research team wants to acknowledge the sustaining support it has had from the libraries and the inter-library loan departments of the University of Alberta and the University of Guelph, and we want also to acknowledge a longstanding debt of thanks to the British Library and the Bodleian, and to other research collections, too many to name, in Britain and elsewhere. We are grateful also to colleagues who generously gave us their time to help test the Orlando delivery system.
In its early planning phase especially, and sometimes since, the Orlando Project sought and gratefully received the advice of members of its Advisory Panel, whose members were Virginia Blain, Macquarie University; Marilyn Butler, Oxford University; Paul Delany, Simon Fraser University; Patricia Demers, University of Alberta; Julia Flanders, Brown University; Susan Hockey, University College, London; Ludmilla Jordanova, Kings College, University of London; Peter Lown, University of Alberta; Jane Marcus, City College of New York; Juliet McMaster, University of Alberta; Patricia Prestwich, University of Alberta; Bonnie Kime Scott, San Diego State University; Ann B. Shteir, York University.
We are grateful to Linda Bree and her colleagues at Cambridge University Press, with whom it has been a great pleasure to work on the many issues involved in making Orlando accessible online.
The Orlando editors, of whose lives this work has for years been a rewarding and demanding part, are keenly and thankfully aware of the many kinds of support they have received from their families and friends.
Orlando is the beneficiary of unceasingly generous encouragement and scholarly support from research colleagues and students across the English-speaking world, many of whom are named in the textbase notes and bibliography. We are deeply grateful to all of these for their constructive and creating interest in The Orlando Project and for their careful and committed research on the lives and works of women, which continues to give us new and expanding understandings of our literary pasts and our human story.
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